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Thursday, July 8, 2010

B.E. CIVIL ENGINEERING-Syllabus-ANNA UNIVERSITY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI



ANNA UNIVERSITY TIRUCHIRAPPALLI
Tiruchirappalli – 620 024
Regulations 2008
Syllabus
B.E. CIVIL ENGINEERING
SEMESTER III
MA1201 – TRANSFORMS AND PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
(Common to all branches)
L T P C
3 1 0 4
UNIT I FOURIER SERIES 9
Dirichlet’s conditions – General Fourier series – Odd and even functions – Half range
sine series – Half range cosine series – Complex form of Fourier Series – Parseval’s
identity – Harmonic Analysis.
UNIT II FOURIER TRANSFORMS 9
Fourier integral theorem (without proof) – Fourier transform pair – Sine and
Cosine transforms – Properties – Transforms of simple functions – Convolution theorem
– Parseval’s identity.
UNIT III PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9
Formation of partial differential equations – Lagrange’s linear equation – Solutions of
standard types of first order partial differential equations - Linear partial differential
equations of second and higher order with constant coefficients.
UNIT IV APPLICATIONS OF PARTIAL DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9
Solutions of one dimensional wave equation – One dimensional equation of heat
conduction – Steady state solution of two-dimensional equation of heat conduction
(Insulated edges excluded) – Fourier series solutions in cartesian coordinates.
UNIT V Z -TRANSFORMS AND DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS 9
Z-transforms - Elementary properties – Inverse Z-transform – Convolution theorem -
Formation of difference equations – Solution of difference equations using Z-transform.
L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60
TEXTBOOKS
1. Grewal, B.S., “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, 39th Edition, Khanna
Publishers, 2007.
2. Bali, N.P. and Manish Goyal, “A Textbook of Engineering Mathematics”, 7th
Edition, Laxmi Publications (P) Ltd, 2008.
REFERENCES
1. Ramana, B.V., “Higher Engineering Mathematics”, 2nd Edition, Tata McGraw
Hill, 2008.
2. Glyn James, “Advanced Modern Engineering Mathematics”, 3rd Edition, Pearson
Education, 2007.
3. Erwin Kreyszig, “Advanced Engineering Mathematics” 8th Edition, Wiley India,
2007.
HS1201 – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND
NATURAL RESOURCES 9
Definition – Scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources – Use
and over – Exploitation – Deforestation – Case studies – Timber extraction – Mining –
Dams and their ground water – Floods – Drought – Conflicts over water – Dams –
Benefits and problems – Mineral resources – Use effects on forests and tribal people –
Water resources – Use and over-utilization of surface and exploitation – Environmental
effects of extracting and using mineral resources – Case studies – Food resources –
World food problems – Changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing – Effects of
modern agriculture – Fertilizer – Pesticide problems – Water logging, salinity – Case
studies – Energy resources – Growing energy needs – Renewable and non renewable
energy sources – Use of alternate energy sources – Case studies – Land resources – Land
as a resource – Land degradation – Man induced landslides – Soil erosion and
desertification – Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources – Equitable
use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY 9
Concepts of an ecosystem – Structure and function of an ecosystem – Producers,
consumers and decomposers – Energy flow in the ecosystem – Ecological succession –
Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic
features, structure and function of the (A) forest ecosystem (B) grassland ecosystem (C)
desert ecosystem (D) aquatic ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans,
Estuaries) – Introduction to biodiversity – Definition genetic, species and ecosystem
diversity – Biogeographical classification of India – Value of biodiversity – Consumptive
use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global,
national and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – Hot-Spots of biodiversity –
Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts –
Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and exsitu
conservation of biodiversity.
UNIT III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 9
Definition – Causes, Effects and Control Measures of:- (A) Air Pollution (B) Water
Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal
Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Solid Waste Management:- Causes, Effects and Control
Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of
Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:- Floods, Earthquake, Cyclone
and Landslides
UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9
From unsustainable to sustainable development – Urban problems related to energy –
Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – Resettlement and
rehabilitation of people, its problems and concerns, case studies – Environmental ethics:-
issues and possible solutions – Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer
depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies – Wasteland reclamation –
Consumerism and waste products – Environment production act – Air (Prevention and
control of pollution) act – Water (Prevention and control of pollution) act – Wildlife
protection act – Forest conservation act – Issues involved in enforcement of
environmental legislation – Public awareness.
UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 9
Population growth, variation among nations – Population explosion – Family welfare
programme – Environment and human health – Human rights – Value education – HIV
/AIDS – Women and child welfare – Role of information technology in environment and
human health – Case studies.
Field study of local area to document environmental assets – River/forest/grassland/hill/
mountain.
Field study of common plants, insects and birds – Field study of simple ecosystems –
Pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
Field study of local polluted site – Urban/rural/industrial/agricultural.
Total: 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Masters, G.M., “Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science”, 2nd
Edition, Pearson Education, 2007.
2. Townsend, C., Harper, J. and Begon, M., “Essentials of Ecology”, Blackwell
Science, 2003.
REFERENCES
1. Cunningham, Cooper, W.P. and Gorhani, T.H., “Environmental Encyclopedia”,
Jaico Publishing House, 2001.
2. Erach, B., “The Biodiversity of India”, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd.,2006
3. Wages, K.D., “Environmental Management”, W.B. Saunders Co., 1998
CE1201 – APPLIED GEOLOGY
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I GENERAL GEOLOGY 9
Geology in civ il Engineering – Branches of geology – Earth Structures and composition
– Elementary knowledge on continental drift and plate technologies – Earth processes –
Weathering – Work of rivers, wind and sea and their engineering importance –
Earthquake belts in India – Groundwater – Mode of occurrence – Prospecting –
importance in civil engineering
UNIT II MINERALOGY 9
Elementary knowledge on symmetry elements of important crystallographic systems –
Physical properties of minerals – Study of the following rock forming minerals – Quartz
family – Feldpar family – Augite, hornblende, biotite, muscovite, calcite, garnet –
properties – behaviour and engineering significance of clay minerals – Fundamentals of
process of formation of ore minerals – Coal and petroleum – Their origin and occurrence
in India.
UNIT III PETROLOGY 9
Classification of rocks – Distinction between igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic
rocks – Description occurrence, engineering properties and distribution of following
rocks – Igneous rocks – Granite, syenite , diorite , gabbro , pegmatite, dolerite and basalt
sedimentary rocks sandstone – Limestone, shale conglo, conglomerate and breccia.
Metamorphic rocks – Quartizite, marble, slate, phyllite, gniess and schist.
UNIT IV STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY AND GEOPHYSICAL METHOD 9
Attitude of beds – Outcrops – Introduction to geological maps Study of structures –
Folds, faults and joints – Their bearing on engineering construction – Seismic and
electrical methods for civil engineering investigations.
UNIT V GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING 9
Remote sensing techniques – Study of air photos and satellite images – Interpretation for
civil Engineering projects – Geological conditions necessary for construction of dams -
Tunnels – Buildings – Road cuttings – Land slides – Causes and preventions – Sea
erosion and coastal protection.
Total: 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Parbin Singh, “Engineering and General Geology”, Katson Publication House,
1987.
2. Krynine and Judd, “Engineering Geology and Geotechniques”, McGraw-Hill
Book Company, 1990
REFERENCES
1. Legeet, “Geology and Engineering”, McGraw-Hill Book Company 1998
2. Blyth, “Geology for Engineers”, ELBS, 1995.
CE1202 – MECHANICS OF SOLIDS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
UNIT I STRESS STRAIN AND DEFORMATION OF SOLIDS, STATES OF
STRESS 9
Rigid bodies and deformable solids – Stability – Strength – Stiffness – Tension,
Compression and shear stresses – Strain – Elasticity – Hooke’s law – Limit of
proportionately, modulus of elasticity – stress-strain curve – lateral strain – temperature
stresses – deformation of simple and compound bars – shear modulus – bulk modulus –
relationship between elastic constants – biaxial state of stress – stress at a point – stress
on inclined plane – principal stresses and principal planes – Mohr’s circle of stresses.
UNIT II ANALYSIS OF PLANE TRUSS, THIN CYLINDERS / SHELLS 9
Stability and equilibrium of plane frames – Types of trusses – Analysis of forces in truss
members – Method of joints – Method of sections – Method of tension coefficients –
Thin cylinders and shells – Under internal pressure – Deformation of thin cylinders and
shells.
UNIT III TRANSVERSE LOADING ON BEAMS 9
Beams statistically determinate and indeterminate beams – Types of supports – Simple
and fixed, types of loads – Concentrated – Uniformly distributed – Varying distributed
load – Combination of above loading – Relationship between bending moment and shear
force – Bending moment and shear force diagram for simply supported, cantilever and
over hanging beams – Theory of simple bending – Analysis of stresses – Load carrying
capacity of beams – Proportioning of sections
UNIT IV DEFLECTION OF BEAMS AND SHEAR STRESSES 9
Deflection of beams – Double integration method – Macaulay’s method – Slope and
deflection using moment area method – Conjugate Beam method – Variation of shear
stress – Shear stress distribution in rectangular – Various sections.
UNIT V TORSION AND SPRINGS 9
Stresses and deformation in circular (solid and hollow shafts) – Stepped shafts – Shafts
fixed at both ends – Leaf springs – Stresses in helical springs – Deflection of springs.
L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60
TEXT BOOKS
1. Egor P. Popov, “Engineering Mechanics of Solids”, Prentice Hall of India, 2003.
2. Bansal, R.K., “Strength of Materials”, Laxmi Publications, 2007.
REFERENCES
1. Subramanian, R., “Strength of Materials”, Oxford university Press, 2005.
2. William A. Nash, “Theory and Problems of Strength of Materials, Schaum’s
Outline Series”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co., 2007.
3. Srinath, L.S., “Advanced Mechanics of Solids”, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing
Co., 2003.
CE1203 – MECHANICS OF FLUIDS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
UNIT I DEFINITIONS AND FLUID PROPERTIES 5
Definitions – Fluid and fluid mechanics – Dimensions and units – Fluid properties –
Continuum Concept of system and control volume
UNIT II FLUID STATICS and KINEMATICS 10
Pascal’s Law and Hydrostatic equation – Forces on plane and curved surfaces –
Buoyancy – Meta centre – Pressure measurement – Fluid mass under relative equilibrium
Fluid Kinematics – Stream, streak and path lines – Classification of flows – Continuity
equation (one, two and three dimensional forms) – Stream and potential functions – flow
nets – Velocity measurement (Pitot tube, current meter, Hot wire and hot film
anemometer, float technique, Laser Doppler velocimetry)
UNIT III FLUID DYNAMICS 10
Euler and Bernoulli’s equations – Application of Bernoulli’s equation – Discharge
measurement – Laminar flows through pipes and between plates – Hagen Poiseuille
equation – Turbulent flow – Darcy-Weisbach formula – Moody diagram – Momentum
Principle
UNIT IV BOUNDARY LAYER AND FLOW THROUGH PIPES 10
Definition of boundary layer – Thickness and classification – Displacement and
momentum thickness – Development of laminar and turbulent flows in circular pipes –
Major and minor losses of flow in pipes – Pipes in series and in parallel – Pipe network
UNIT V SIMILITUDE AND MODEL STUDY 10
Dimensional Analysis – Rayleigh’s method – Buckingham’s Pi-theorem – Similitude and
models – Scale effect and distorted models.
L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60
TEXT BOOKS
1. Kumar, K.L., “Engineering Fluid Mechanics”, Eurasia Publishing House (P) Ltd.,
New Delhi, 1995.
2. Rajput, R.K., “A text book of Fluid Mechanics”, S.Chand and Co.,2007.
REFERENCES
1. John Finnemore, E. and Joseph B. Franzini, “Fluid Mechanics with Engineering
Applications”, McGraw-Hill International Edition, 2001
2. Pernard Messay, “Mechanics of Fluids” 7th Edition, Nelson Thornes Ltd. U. K.
1998.
3. Modi, P.N. and Seth, S.M ., “Hydraulics and fluid Mechanics”, Standard book
house , 2005.
CE1204 – CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES, EQUIPMENTS AND PRACTICE
L T P C
4 0 0 4
UNIT I CONCRETE TECHNOLOGY 12
Cements – Grade of cements – Manufactures of cement – Concrete chemicals and
applications – Mix design concept – Mix design as per BIS and ACI methods –
Manufacturing of concrete – Batching – Mixing – Transporting – Placing – Compaction
of concrete – Curing and finishing – Testing of fresh and hardened concrete – Quality of
concrete – Non-destructive testing.
UNIT II CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES 13
Specifications, details and sequence of activities and construction co-ordination – Site
clearance – Marking – Earthwork – Masonry – Stone masonry – Bond in masonry –
Concrete hollow block masonry – Flooring – Damp proof courses – Construction joints –
Movement and expansion joints – Pre cast pavements – Building foundations –
basements – Temporary shed – Centering and shuttering sheet piles – Slip forms –
scaffoldings – De-shuttering forms – Fabrication and erection of steel trusses – Frames –
Braced domes – Laying brick – Weather and water proof – Roof finishes – Air
conditioning – Acoustic and fire protection.
UNIT III SUB STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION 13
Techniques of Box jacking – Pipe Jacking – under water construction of diaphragm walls
and basement – Tunneling techniques – Piling techniques – Driving well and caisson –
Sinking cofferdam – Cable anchoring and grouting – Driving diaphragm walls – Sheet
piles – Shoring for deep cutting – Large reservoir construction with membranes and Earth
system – Well points – Dewatering and stand by plant equipment for underground open
excavation.
UNIT IV SUPER STRUCTURE CONSTRUCTION 12
Launching girders – Bridge decks – Off shore platforms – Special forms for shells –
Techniques for heavy decks – In-situ pre-stressing in high rise structures – Material
handling – Erecting light weight components on tall structures – Support structure for
heavy Equipment and conveyors – Erection of articulated structures – Braced domes and
space decks.
UNIT V CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS 10
Selection of equipment for earth work – Earth moving operations – Types of earthwork
equipment – Tractors – Motor graders – Scrapers – Front end waders – Earth movers –
Equipment for foundation and pile driving. Equipment for compaction – Batching and
mixing and concreting – Equipment for material handling and erection of structures –
Equipment for dredging, trenching, tunneling,
Total: 60
TEXT BOOKS
1. Arora S.P. and Bindra S.P., “Building Construction, Planning Techniques and
Method of Construction”, Dhanpat Rai and Sons, 1997.
2. Sharma, S.C., “Construction Equipment and Management”, Khanna Publishers,
1988.
REFERENCES
1. Jha, J. and Sinha, S.K., “Construction and Foundation Engineering”, Khanna
Publishers, 1993.
2. Deodhar, S.V., “Construction Equipment and Job Planning”, Khanna Publishers,
1988.
3. Peurifoy, R.L., Ledbetter, W.B. and Schexnayder, C., "Construction Planning,
Equipment and Methods", 5th Edition, McGraw Hill, 1995.
CE1205 – SURVEYING I
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I INTRODUCTION AND CHAIN SURVEYING 8
Definition – Principles – Classification – Field and office work – Scales – Conventional
signs – Survey instruments – their care and adjustment – Ranging and chaining –
Reciprocal ranging – Setting perpendiculars -well – conditioned triangles – Traversing –
Plotting – Enlarging and reducing figures.
UNIT II COMPASS SURVEYING AND PLANE TABLE SURVEYING 7
Prismatic compass – Surveyor’s compass – Bearing – Systems and conversions – Local
attraction – Magnetic declination – Dip – Traversing – Plotting – Adjustment of errors –
Plane table instruments and accessories – Merits and demerits – Methods – Radiation –
Intersection – Resection – Traversing.
UNIT III LEVELLING AND APPLICATIONS 12
Level line – Horizontal line – Levels and staves – Spirit level – Sensitiveness – Bench
marks – Temporary and permanent adjustments – Fly and check levelling – Booking –
Reduction – Curvature and refraction – Reciprocal levelling – Longitudinal and cross
sections – Plotting – Calculation of areas and volumes – Contouring – Methods –
Characteristics and uses of contours – Plotting – Earth work volume – Capacity of
reservoirs.
UNIT IV THEODOLITE SURVEYING 8
Theodolite – Vernier and microptic – Description and uses – Temporary and permanent
adjustments of vernier transit – Horizontal angles – Vertical angles – Heights and
distances – Traversing – Closing error and distribution – Gale’s tables – Omitted
measurements.
UNIT V ENGINEERING SURVEYS 10
Reconnaissance – preliminary and location surveys for engineering projects – Lay out –
Setting out works – Route Surveys for highways – Railways and waterways – Curve
ranging – Horizontal and vertical curves – Simple curves – Setting with chain and tapes
– tangential angles by theodolite – Double theodolite – Basic concept of Compound and
reverse curves – Transition curves – Functions and requirements – Setting out by offsets
and angles – Vertical curves – Sight distances.
Total: 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Bannister A. and Raymond S., “Surveying”, ELBS, 6th Edition, 1992.
2. Kanetkar T.P., “Surveying and Levelling”, Vol. I and II, United Book
Corporation, Pune, 1994.
REFERENCES
1. Heribert Kahmen and Wolfgang Faig, “Surveying”, Walter de Gruyter, 1995.
2. James M. Anderson and Edward M. Mikhail, “Introduction to Surveying”,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1985.
3. Punmia B.C., “Surveying”, Vol. I, II and III, Laxmi Publications, 2007
CE1206 – SURVEYING PRACTICAL I
L T P C
0 0 4 2
1. Study of chains and its accessories
2. Aligning, Ranging and Chaining
3. Chain Traversing
4. Compass Traversing
5. Plane table surveying: Radiation
6. Plane table surveying: Intersection
7. Plane table surveying: Traversing
8. Plane table surveying: Resection –Three point problem
9. Plane table surveying: Resection – Two point problem
10. Study of levels and levelling staff
11. Fly levelling using Dumpy level
12. Fly levelling using tilting level
13. Check levelling
14. LS and CS
15. Contouring
16. Study of Theodolite
Total: 60
SURVEYING PRACTICAL I AND SURVEYING PRACTICAL II
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS
(For a batch of 30 students)
Sl. No. Description of Equipments Quantity
1. Total Station 3 Nos
2. Theodolites Atleast 1 for every 10
students
3. Dumpy level Atleast 1 for every 10
students
4. Plain table Atleast 1 for every 10
students
5. Pocket stereoscope 1
6. Ranging rods 3 for a set of 5 students
7. Leveling staff
8. Cross staff
9. Chains
10. Tapes
1 for a set of 5 students
11. Arrows 5 for a set of 5 students
CE1207 – COMPUTER AIDED BUILDING DRAWING
L T P C
0 0 4 2
1. Buildings with load bearing walls (Flat and pitched roof) –
Including details of doors and windows 15
2. RCC framed structures 15
3. Industrial buildings – North light roof structures – Trusses 15
4. Perspective view of one and two storey buildings 15
Total: 60
TEXT BOOKS
1. Civil Engg. Drawing and House Planning – Varma B.P., Khanna publishers,
Delhi
2. Building drawing and detailing – Balagopal and T.S. Prabhu, Spades Publishers,
Calicut.
REFERENCES
1. Building drawing – Shah.M.G., Tata McGraw-Hill,1992
2. Building planning and Drawing –Kumaraswamy N., Kameswara Rao A.,
Charotar Publishing
3. Shah, Kale and Patki, Building Drawing with integrated approach to built
environment, Tata McGraw-Hill.
Examination Guideline
30% of the end semester examination paper shall deal with planning, while the rest 70%
shall be based on the drafting skill.
LIST OF EQUIPMENTS
(For a batch of 30 students)
Sl. No. Description of Equipments Quantity
1. Computer system of Pentium IV or
equivalent
1 for each student
2. Licensed version of any reputed Analysis,
Design and Drafting software
1 copy for a set of 3
students
SEMESTER IV
MA1251 – NUMERICAL METHODS
L T P C
3 1 0 4
UNIT I SOLUTION OF EQUATIONS AND EIGENVALUE PROBLEMS 9
Solution of equation – Fixed point iteration: x=g(x) method – Newton’s method –
Solution of linear system by Gaussian elimination and Gauss-Jordon method – Iterative
method – Gauss-Seidel method – Inverse of a matrix by Gauss Jordon method – Eigen
value of a matrix by power method and by Jacobi method for symmetric matrix.
UNIT II INTERPOLATION AND APPROXIMATION 9
Lagrangian Polynomials – Divided differences – Interpolating with a cubic spline –
Newton’s forward and backward difference formulas.
UNIT III NUMERICAL DIFFERENTIATION AND INTEGRATION 9
Differentiation using interpolation formulae –Numerical integration by trapezoidal and
Simpson’s 1/3 and 3/8 rules – Romberg’s method – Two and Three point Gaussian
quadrature formulae – Double integrals using trapezoidal and Simpsons’s rules.
UNIT IV INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS FOR ORDINARY DIFFERENTIAL
EQUATIONS 9
Single step methods – Taylor series method – Euler method for first order equation –
Fourth order Runge – Kutta method for solving first and second order equations –
Multistep methods – Milne’s and Adam’s predictor and corrector methods.
UNIT V BOUNDARY VALUE PROBLEMS IN ORDINARY AND PARTIAL
DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 9
Finite difference solution of second order ordinary differential equation – Finite
difference solution of one dimensional heat equation by explicit and implicit methods –
One dimensional wave equation and two dimensional Laplace and Poisson equations.
L: 45 T: 15 Total: 60
TEXT BOOKS
1. Veerarjan, T and Ramachandran, T., “Numerical Methods with Programming
in C”, 2nd Editiion, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co.Ltd, 2007.
2. Sankara Rao, K, “Numerical Methods for Scientisits and Engineers”, 3rd Edition,
Printice Hall of India, 2007.
REFERENCES
1. Chapra, S. C. and Canale, R. P., “Numerical Methods for Engineers”, 5th Edition,
Tata McGraw-Hill, 2007.
2. Gerald,C.F. and Wheatley, P.O., “Applied Numerical Analysis”, 6th Edition,
Pearson Education, 2006.
3. Grewal, B.S. and Grewal, J.S., “ Numerical methods in Engineering and Science”,
6th Edition, Khanna Publishers,2004.
CE1251 – SOIL MECHANICS
L T P C
3 0 0 3
UNIT I SOIL INTER RELATIONS 8
Nature of Soil – Problems with soil – Phase relation – Sieve analysis – Sedimentation
analysis – Atterberg limits – Classification for engineering purposes – BIS Classification
system – Soil compaction – Factors affecting compaction – Field compaction methods
and monitoring.
UNIT II SOIL WATER AND WATER FLOW 8
Soil water – Various forms – Influence of clay minerals – Capillary rise – Suction –
Effective stress concepts in soil – Total, neutral and effective stress distribution in soil –
Permeability – Darcy’s law – Permeability measurement in the laboratory – Quick sand
condition – Seepage – Laplace equation – Introduction to flow nets –Properties and uses
– Application to simple problems.
UNIT III STRESS DISTRIBUTION, COMPRESSIBILITY AND
SETTLEMENT 10
Stress distribution in soil media – Boussinesque formula – Stress due to line load and
Circular and rectangular loaded area – Approximate methods – Use of influence charts –
Westergaard equation for point load – Components of settlement – Immediate and
consolidation settlement – Terzaghi's one dimensional consolidation theory – Governing
differential equation – Laboratory consolidation test – Field consolidation curve – NC
and OC clays – Problems on final and time rate of consolidation
UNIT IV SHEAR STRENGTH 9
Shear strength of cohesive and cohesionless soils – Mohr – Coulomb failure theory –
Saturated soil and unsaturated soil (basics only) – Strength parameters – Measurement of
shear strength, direct shear, triaxial compression, unconfined compressive strength and
vane shear tests –Types of shear tests based on drainage and their applicability – Drained
and undrained behaviour of clay and sand – Stress path for conventional triaxial test.
UNIT V SLOPE STABILITY 10
Slope failure mechanisms – Modes – Infinite slopes – Finite slopes – Total and effective
stress analysis – Stability analysis for purely cohesive and c-φ soils– Method of slices –
Modified Bishop’s method – Friction circle method – Stability number – Problems –
Slope protection measures.
Total: 45
TEXT BOOKS
1. Gopal Ranjan and Rao A.S.R., “Basic and Applied Soil Mechanics”, New Age
International Publishers, 2000.
2. Khan, I.H., “A Text Book of Geotechnical Engineering”, Prentice Hall of India,
1999.
REFERENCES
1. Coduto, D.P., “Geotechnical Engineering Principles and Practices”, Prentice Hall
of India, 2002.
2. McCarthy, D.F., “Essentials of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Basic
Geotechniques”, 6th Edition, Prentice Hall of India, 2002.
3. Das, B.M., “Principles of Geotechnical Engineering”, 5th Edition, Thomas
Books/ Cole, 2002.

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